The potent active ingredient, considered early as a single substance, "Capsaicin" was soon shown to be a mixture of two unsaturated and three saturated homologs. This mixture is now called Capsaicinoids. The pungent components of Capsicum annum include at least 5 compounds, known as Capsaicinoids:

Name Code Systematic Name
Capsaicin C trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide
Dihydrocapsaicin DHC 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-nonamide
Nordihydrocapsaicin NDHC 7-methyl-N-vanillyl-octamide
Homodihydrocapsaicin HDHC 9-methyl-N-vanillyl-decamide
Homocapsaicin HC trans-9-methyl-N-vanillyl-7-decenamide

Capsaicinoids are produced by glands in the pepper’s placenta, which is the top of the partition just below the stem. The placenta is about 16 times more pungent than the flesh.There are several other ingredients in Capsicum that directly regulate the effectiveness of an OC formulation. One such ingredient is the pigment or the "Carotinoid" also called "Capsanthin" with a molecular formula of C40H56O3, and systematic name of (3R,3’S,5’R)-3,3'-Dihydroxy-ß,k-caroten-6'-one. Capsanthin has a molecular weight of 584.85
Capsaicin is available in synthetic or natural form. Law enforcement agencies should be aware of synthetic analogs that are used in order to increase the heat factor in Capsicum extracts, as well as synthetic or imitation Oleoresin Capsicums. Some of the known related synthetic capsaicin analogs are:

N-Vanillyl octanamide N-Vanillyl decanamide
N-Vanillyl nonanamide N-Vanillyl undecanamide
N-Vanillyl paaiperic acidamide

Be aware of synthetic analogues (chemicals) such as n-vanillyl octanamide used to increase the heat factor in Capsicum extracts to reduce production costs. These compounds are acidic in nature and can cause serious health hazards and eye damage.
Capsaicin produces inflammation of the mucous membranes. This is why those coming into contact with CAP-STUN experience an immediate closing of the eyes, difficulty in breathing and burning sensation of the skin called REMS.
This neurogenic inflammation is the key difference between CAP-STUN’s effects and other chemical agents and tear-gases.

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